The city of al-Hajar (Madain Saleh)

General information

The city of al-Hajar or Madain Saleh, an archaeological site in Saudi Arabia, is located in the province of Al-Ola of the region of Medina, and occupies a strategic location on the road that connects southern Arabia with Mesopotamia, Bilad al-Sham and Egypt. : al-Hijr was known as Madain Saleh or Saleh villages. al-Hijr is located 22 km northeast of the city of Al Ula at the latitude of 47 to 26 north, and longitude 53 to 37 east and al-Hijr is called this place since the earliest times, al-Hijr derives its historical fame from its location on the old trade road linking the south of the Arabian Peninsula and the Levant, and known The people of Thamud who mentioned the Koran that they answered the call of the Prophet of God Saleh, and then apostatized from their religion, and disgraced camel sent by God verse.

According to archeology, the city of al-Hijr was inhabited by the Thamudi stakeholders in the third millennium BC, and later by the Lehyania living in the ninth century BC. al-Hijr temples and tombs, Nabateans have attributed the construction of al-Hijr city to themselves in the inscriptions found. However, the city of al-Hajar contains a huge amount of rhino and inscription inscriptions that need to be studied and dismantled. Coming from southern Arabia. In 2008, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) declared Madain Saleh a World Heritage Site, becoming the first site in Saudi Arabia to join the World Heritage List.

The Nabataeans are of a al-Hijr age

The researchers proved that the Nabateans were the first to settle al-Hijr (Madain Saleh), and built it, and the researchers believe that the origin of the Nabateans from Arabia, and historian Diodor Sicily stated that the Nabateans were nomadic herders do not know agriculture, that they are unstable, and they do not drink alcohol, Their land is mostly rocky and rugged. It is well known that the Nabataeans established a huge kingdom that extended from their capital Petra (Sila) north to al-Hijr (Madain Saleh) in the south, and was the earliest evidence of the existence of the Nabataeans dating back to the ninth century AD, and was the beginning of the emergence of their kingdom in the city of Sila now called Petra, It is the political capital of the Nabateans. Then they decided to take control of the old trade route, and they established their commercial capital (al-Hijr). Through the Nabataean inscriptions dated in Madain Saleh, we can determine the chronological age of the rule of the Nabataean Kingdom, as it starts from the first century BC to the middle of the second century AD. The Nabateans faced many political and economic problems, especially with the Roman Empire, but the biggest problem faced by the Nabatean Kingdom and led to its fall and decay in the end is the discovery of monsoons in the first century BC, which caused the adoption of States and commercial caravans wholly to transport their goods by sea Red, which affected al-Hijr that was dependent on the passage of convoys to their territory and took taxes from them.

The Nabataeans were an ancient people who settled in northwestern Arabia, and their language was a form of late Aramaic, showing a significant influence on Arabic. Seven hundred years before the birth of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), the Nabataean kingdom extended from Damascus to the Red Sea. In 63 AD annexed Rome, and in 106 AD turned Emperor Trajan into a Roman province with the rest of Arabia. The success of the Nabataeans was largely due to the presence of the best architects of the ancient world. The remains of Madain Saleh show the magnificent architectural works of which they are famous, and you will find here more than 131 huge tombs carved on individual standing rocks amid a wavy world of sand, and islands of decaying sandstone rocks that have eroded and rippled into wonderful carved forms, and when you reach this ancient city – Northwest of Saudi Arabia, between Tabuk and Medina – in the afternoon you will see the golden plateaus, and behind it is Hurra Awird with its volcanic land. This is one of the best sights in Arabia, and the names of local landmarks are nomadic and not Nabataean, but used by archaeologists. In ancient times, Madain Saleh was known as Hajar, or its Arabic name (Hajar).

Palace of Sanea

The first of the tombs is the palace of Sanea, and although not so dramatic, it serves as a prelude to the main elements of the Nabataean style of tombs, the great façade, the five-tiered forms, and the inscriptions at the top of the door. Inside the tomb, where the holes were placed corpses. The tombs present twenty tombs in good condition from one of the best tombs preserved in Madain Saleh. A bowl was used in rituals associated with funerals, and in al-Khuraymat houses built of milk and a Nabati well.

Mount Ithlib

Mount Ithleb stands dramatically on the horizon in the northeast, surrounded by a vast space. As in the city of Petra in Jordan, this region has a narrow road called (Siq). Inside the rock is a large open hall called the Diwan, surrounded by two columns and some al-Hijr stucco on the three inner walls. Quoting from the discoverer Charles Doughty in 1305 AH (1888 AD) there was a threshold, and it fell with the front of the ceiling, and this room is gentle cold, as the breeze blows there always, and because faced